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In summary, an active U.S. effort to combine standards, trade, and technical assistance is extremely important at this point in history. As developments in countries like Indonesia show, the United States` trading partners in East Asia and Latin America have begun to modernize their standards and conformity assessment infrastructure. The participation of the United States and the active participation of these nations in the development of policies and programs to meet development needs can not only help improve growth prospects abroad, but also bind the United States to these nations, as they continue to adopt market-based economic principles and systems. Market access for imported goods into the market of a WTO Member may be impeded or restricted in a variety of ways. The most frequent barriers to market access are customs duties, quantitative restrictions, technical requirements, lack of transparency of national trade rules, unfair application of customs formalities and procedures. Given their diversity, the rules must be different to regulate these tariff and non-tariff barriers to market access. [4] Rapid export expansion has played an important role in U.S. employment growth over the past decade.

As of 1990, there were 7.2 million U.S. workers working in export-related jobs. This represents 20% of the total employment of 10.4 million jobs in the United States during the period 1986-1990. Moreover, in 1990, export-related jobs paid an average of 17% above the national average of all U.S. workers ($11.69 versus $10.02).4 It is clear that this policy, as the United States continues to adopt a trade policy focused on opening world markets and expanding trade, will provide greater employment opportunities in high-paying jobs. Trade protection that limits competition or limits the flow of products into international markets reduces global efficiency and slows economic progress. A number of policy instruments are used by nations to protect companies from international competition.7 voluntary export restrictions; production subsidies; import quotas; and a wide range of non-tariff barriers, including those related to standards and conformity assessment mechanisms. Discriminatory import standards and non-transparent or discriminatory compliance requirements can create significant non-tariff barriers. A vigorous effort to streamline international systems for standards, certifications, and quality standards at the regional and multilateral levels is an appropriate priority for U.S. trade and standardization officials.

The objective of these efforts is clear. They should put in place a mechanism for manufacturers who use global markets to obtain tests, certifications and quality system registrations once and in a market to gain acceptance of products worldwide. The goal of secure credibility in these systems is also essential. Achieving this goal should be a multilateral priority, but work can be undertaken unilaterally and at the regional level to advance this principle, as outlined later in sections on the application of U.S. trade law for barrier removal and regional dialogue on mutual recognition agreements (AMRs) at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum. As noted in the next section, there are also international mechanisms to reduce normal barriers to trade. These mechanisms are part of gatt and the new World Trade Organization, created by the Uruguay Round of multilateral negotiations. The Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade concluded in 1994 with the signing of a Global Trade Agreement22 Have made considerable progress in promoting the objective of reducing barriers to trade, including tariffs and non-tariff barriers. .

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