The armistice, which marked the end of the First World War, came into force on 11 November 1918 at 11 a.m. Here is a collection of resources for Armistice Day to recall and recall these events. None of the other peace treaties has been so controversial. As Austria had long been dissolved, the Treaty of Saint-Germain (10 September 1919) confirmed Austria`s losses to Italy, Romania and the newly formed states of Czechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia. A nine-month communist dictatorship in newly independent Hungary delayed – until 4 June 1920 – the signing of the Treaty of Trianon, which caused Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia to lose land. In the meantime, Bulgaria had signed the Treaty of Neuilly (27 November 1919) and had ceded the territory to Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia. On 3 November, when Vienna was on the brink of revolution and the Habsburg Empire was being shredded, Austria also signed a ceasefire. The next day, the fighting stopped on the Italian front. He has already been despised by conservatives and the right in Germany for signing the ceasefire.
His support for Versailles called him a „politician of accomplishment” and made him the victim of other hate campaigns. He was considered a „November criminal” after betraying Germany at the end of the war. And there were other reasons to hate Erzberger. In his new role as Finance Minister of the Weimar Republic, he introduced a new tax system that imposed the rich and those who had benefited from the war, and he also introduced inheritance taxes that offended all the old bourgeois elites. Conservative and right-wing politicians began to take revenge against him. The last peace treaty, the Treaty of Sevres with the newly formed Republic of Turkey, was signed on 10 August 1920. However, the Turks quickly kept with the promises of Kurdish autonomy and Armenia`s independence, retaining control of Smyrna in August 1922, which had been given to Greece two years earlier. The borders of western Turkey were therefore finally resolved only with the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne in July 1923. The German delegation was in a desperate negotiating position.
Not only was part of Germany now under Allied occupation, but the Allies, at the insistence of the French, continued the trade blockade until the signing of the peace treaty. The French delegations most clearly rejected the French delegation in the Lloyd Georges Fontainebleau memorandum of March 1919. In the early morning hours of November 11, Erzberger and Foch met for final negotiations. According to Lowry, the German envoy did his best to convince Foch to make the agreement less severe. Foch made some small changes, including that the Germans kept some of their weapons. Finally, the agreement was signed just before dawn. The first of the central powers to complain for peace was Bulgaria. The terms of the ceasefire agreed with the Allies on 29 September 1918 included the evacuation of Bulgarian troops from all Greek and Serbian territories and the occupation by the Allies of certain strategic points within Bulgaria.
The ceasefire was signed at 5:12 a.m. on November 11.m. Although it was agreed that the ceasefire would stagnate by 11,000 .m the 11th day of the 11th month for reasons of order. It is estimated that in the last six hours of the fighting, an additional 2,700,38 men were killed, unnecessarily. The last person to be killed, a Canadian soldier, was shot dead by a German sniper just minutes before the end of the fighting. In the years that followed, many German generals, including Hindenburg, claimed that the country`s new leaders, socialists and Jews, had „stabbed Germany in the back” by signing the ceasefire. Tillessen had been forced to deliver a torpedo ship to Scapa Flow and was responsible for its dismantling in June 1919, a traumatic experience for him, as for all the other captains who sank their own ships instead of delivering them to the Allies.